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Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (Periostitis)

Periostitis, scientifically known as medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), is characterized by pain in the inner tibia, above the medial malleolus of the runner’s ankle. This pathology develops after overexertion of the posterior muscle chain, caused by any unusual activity that forces the runner more on their toes.

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Tibial Stress Fracture (Stress fracture)

A tibial stress fracture may result from untreated tibial periostitis or continued physical activity that increases shin pain. A point of pain becomes more localized and swelling can sometimes occur. This is actually a microfracture, often not visible on X-rays.

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Achilles Tendinopathy (Achilles tendinitis)

The Achilles tendon connects the calf to the heel and is the strongest tendon in the body, capable of withstanding impressive tensile loads. Unfortunately, it is also the most frequently injured tendon in long- and short-distance runners. This tendon can become inflamed when mainly stressed by speed, hill and jump training (tendinitis). If pain persists for more than a few weeks, this inflammation can give way to scar tissue  (tendinosis).

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Anterior Compartment Syndrome (Compartment syndrome)

Anterior compartment syndrome is often characterized by pressure and/or compression sensations in the anterior leg. When a muscle is strained, it becomes engorged with water and swells. This expansion may be restricted if the muscle is located inside of a compartment made of bone and fibrous membranes. For some runners, the pressure inside the compartment becomes high enough to cause pain. This pressure may even compress nerves that run along the compartment, numbing the upper foot.

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Tibialis Anterior Tenosynovitis (Problem lifting the foot)

The tibialis anterior slows the foot’s descent during the heel strike. Tibialis anterior tenosynovitis is characterized by pain in the front of the ankle and leg.This condition is very common among ultra-trail runners, as extended runs often cause this injury.

Calf muscle strain injury (Calf muscle tear)

Calf muscle strain injury is the most common strain injury for endurance runners. It involves muscle fibre tearing to a greater or lesser degree depending on the pathology level. It is associated with pain during stretching, contraction and palpation. This condition usually occurs during a rapid pushing movement on the toes.

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