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Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (Shin Splints)

Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), also known as shin splints, is characterized by pain along the inner part of the shinbone (tibia). Shin splints develop when the muscle and bone tissue are overloaded from repetitive activity, and usually occur after sudden changes in physical activity such as rapid increases in duration or intensity of training.

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Tibial Stress Fracture (Stress fracture)

A tibial stress fracture may result from untreated shin splints or overtraining. Often the pain is more localized and swelling can sometimes occur. Stress fractures are actually tiny cracks in bones (ie. microfractures), but are often not visible on X-rays.

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Achilles Tendinopathy (Achilles tendinitis)

The Achilles tendon connects the calf to the heel and is the strongest tendon in the body, capable of withstanding impressive tensile loads. Unfortunately, it is also the most frequently injured tendon in long- and short-distance runners. This tendon can become inflamed when over-stressed by speed, hill and jump training (tendinitis). If pain persists for more than a few weeks, this inflammation can lead to the development of scar tissue (tendinosis).

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Anterior Compartment Syndrome (Compartment syndrome)

Anterior compartment syndrome is often characterized by pressure and/or compression sensations in the shins. When a muscle is strained, it becomes engorged with water and swells. In some runners, this expansion can become constricted due to the fibrous membrane that covers the muscles, and the pressure becomes high enough to cause pain. This pressure may also compress nerves that run along the compartment, and cause numbing in the upper foot.

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Tibialis Anterior Tenosynovitis (Problem lifting the foot)

The tibialis anterior muscle is a muscle that runs along the front of the shin and connects to the foot via a tendon.  The tibialis anterior muscle helps prevent your foot from slapping the ground when it first makes contact during the gait cycle. It also helps lift the foot at the ankle, which is important for clearing the ground during the swing phase of walking/running. Tibialis anterior tenosynovitis is characterized by pain in the front of the ankle and leg. This condition is very common among ultra-trail runners, as extended runs often cause this injury.

Calf muscle strain injury (Calf muscle tear)

Calf muscle strain injury is the most common strain injury for endurance runners. It involves tearing of the muscle fibres and the resulting pain can range from absent, mild, moderate, and severe, depending on how many fibers are torn and whether it is a complete or incomplete rupture. It is associated with pain in the calf (back of the lower leg between the knee and ankle) during stretching, contraction and palpation. This condition usually occurs from high-speed movements like sprinting or jumping.

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