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Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (Shin Splints)

Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), also known as shin splints, is characterized by pain along the inner part of the shinbone (tibia). Shin splints develop when the muscle and bone tissue are overloaded from repetitive activity, and usually occur after sudden changes in physical activity such as rapid increases in duration or intensity of training.

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Tibial Stress Fracture (Stress fracture)

A tibial stress fracture may result from untreated shin splints or overtraining. Often the pain is more localized than for shin splints, and swelling can be observed. Stress fractures are actually tiny cracks in bones (i.e. microfractures), but are often not visible on X-rays.

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Achilles Tendinopathy (Achilles tendinitis)

The Achilles tendon connects the calf to the heel and is the strongest tendon in the body, capable of withstanding impressive tensile loads. Unfortunately, it is also the most frequently injured tendon in long- and short-distance runners. This tendon can become inflamed (tendinitis) when over-stressed by speed, hill and jump training. If pain persists for more than a few weeks, this inflammation can lead to the development of scar tissue (tendinosis).

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Anterior Compartment Syndrome (Compartment syndrome)

Anterior compartment syndrome is often characterized by pressure and/or compression sensations in the shins. When the muscles at the front of the leg are working hard, the pressure increases within the sheath surrounding the muscles. In some runners, the pressure becomes high enough to cause pain. This pressure may also compress nerves that run along the compartment, and cause numbness in the foot. This is typically found in runners who are landing on their heels.

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Tibialis Anterior Tenosynovitis (Problem lifting the foot)

The tibialis anterior muscle is a muscle that runs along the front of the shin and connects to the foot via a tendon.  The tibialis anterior muscle helps prevent your foot from slapping the ground when it first makes contact during the gait cycle. It also helps lift the foot at the ankle, which is important for clearing the ground during the swing phase of walking/running. Tibialis anterior tenosynovitis is characterized by pain in the front of the ankle and leg. This condition is very common among ultra-trail runners, as extended runs and downhill running often cause this injury.

Calf muscle strain injury (Calf muscle tear)

Calf strain injury is the most common muscle injury in endurance runners. It involves tearing of the muscle fibres and the resulting pain can range from mild to moderate to severe, depending on how many fibers are affected and whether it is a complete or partial rupture. It is associated with pain in the calf (back of the lower leg between the knee and ankle) during stretching, contraction and palpation. This condition usually occurs from high-speed movements like sprinting or jumping.

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